Риторика и общество Риторика и общество

Риторика, грамматика, дискурс, гомеостаз

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Abstract. The article is devoted to a comparison of rhetorical, grammatical and discourse
approach to language. Opposition of controlled and adoptive systems in language and
communication is in focus of this article. The key category is homeostasis, that is, the ability of
the system to maintain parameters of its existence within certain limits. The article consists of an
introduction, conclusions and three parts. The first one interprets the social meaning of rhetorical
systemizations, which are usually interpreted as pre-scientific and overloaded with terminology.
The reasons why the ancient systematization was successful are analyzed. However, such
systematization can not be applied to objects of grammar. The idea of ​​rhetoric as a secondary
grammar is challenged in the second part. The systemic nature of the language with which the
grammar deals is based on the idea of ​​a controlled system. While the systemic nature with which
rhetoric deals is adaptive in nature. Grammar deals with the selection of a discrete variant.
Rhetoric is concerned with the construction of continual metaplasms. The analogy between
rhetoric and grammar is rejected and with respect to unmarked forms, the author disputes the
possibility of finding such forms for each trope and each figure. This is illustrated by the theory
of the period in rhetoric. The third part postulates the proximity of the discourse and rhetorical
approaches. Different understandings of discourse correspond to a different degree of
rapprochement with rhetoric. In the discursive approach, the output beyond the scope of the
speech act is productive, which allows us to treat the discursive community as having the
property of homeostasis. This is illustrated by an example of a scientific discursive community
and the adaptive problems of scientific discourse. Crucial are the survival of the individual
within the community and the viability of the community itself. The cardinal difference between
the rhetorical and grammatical approach determines the strategies of language teaching and
research of language. A general conclusion is drawn that rapprochement with rhetoric can
deepen the concept of "discourse" and stabilize its study. The source of such stabilization is the
approach from the position of homeostasis.

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Риторический взгляд на проблему

 

В двадцатом веке возникло два угрожающих сюжета: «восстание масс» и «восстание роботов». Жизнь оказалась остроумнее. «Массы» получили легитимизацию с помощью «роботов», захватив не только количественный, но и качественный контроль над агорой. Под качественным контролем я пониманию такую структуру информационного пространства, которая затрудняет применение традиционных инструментов риторики, игравших на протяжении веков ведущую роль в формировании словесной и коммуникативной культуры. Эта же среда затрудняет применение механизмов нормативного упорядочивания языка и общения, действовавших три с лишним века. Таким образом, две стратегии противостояния коммуникативного хаосу, имевшиеся до сих пор в распоряжении человечества, работают во враждебной для них среде.

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